International Business Machines Corp. Bright Future In Cloud Computing

With the end of the second-quarter of 2015, 54% of the market share in the cloud market has been shared by big four giants, indicated by the Synergy research group. International Business Machines Corp. (NYSE:IBM), Microsoft Corporation (NASDAQ:MSFT), Google Inc. (NASDAQ:GOOG), and Amazon.com, Inc. (NASDAQ:AMZN) together share more than half of the cloud market.

Recent Deals and Partnerships

In an attempt to expand the growing cloud segment, IBM has made significant deals in the area. Its partnerships vary from information technology to health sector. The company has a long-lasting history of acquisitions and mergers.

Recently, the machine maker announced its partnership with CVS. The deteriorating health conditions due to chronic diseases have resulted in IBM and CVS to partner-in estimating the potential causes. With the purchase of San Mateo, IBM’s dedication to its merger plan can be signaled.

In the press release on July 31, IBM announced that within a year, it has secured a total of 1200 patenst in the cloud services. 3% of the total revenue generated by IBM in 2QFY15 came from storage, and 6.6% is contributed by the server facilities. The company has been investing aggressively in its cloud computing services.

Cloud Computing IBM

Providing services through the internet is more commonly referred to as cloud computing. It is categorized to three major categories: Platform as a service (PaaS), Infrastructure as a service (IaaS), and Software as a service (SaaS).

The cumulative annual growth rate (CAGR) in the cloud computing business is likely to be 30 % for each year, from 2013 to 2018, as the IT industry grows 5 %, estimated by Goldman Sachs. Gartner, the research firm estimates a 31.5 % growth in the cloud market in China. The international data corporation (IDC) remarks that in 2015, the cloud infrastructure will reach almost $70 billion, leading to an outperformance of the conventional infrastructure.

As the usage of the cloud storage is increasing, the industry is also pacing with the same speed. The providers for cloud services are competing against each other to maximize their share by catering a large number of audiences. To select the service providers, companies prefer those that excel in its vast reach and scalability.

IBM is able to generate most of its cloud revenue from the hybrid services, maintaining a healthy portfolio of its facilities.

In the 2QFY15, IBM recorded a 13.4% decrease in its revenue on a year-on-year (YoY) basis; the major portion of this decline is attributed to foreign currency translation. Shrinking revenue has triggered its stock prices, trading below $170.

To keep investors’ confidence intact, CFO IBM Martin Schroeter has assured shareholders that the company is on the right track. To compensate the revenue loss in the latest and preceding quarter, Mr. Schroeter emphasized on IBM’s potential gains in the future from data analytics and cloud computing. The organization continues with its slogan “you have to spend money to make money”.

The big blue has also announced its plan to invest $60 million in Africa in the making of technical experts that will acquire skills in cloud and data technologies in three years.

Article source: http://www.businessfinancenews.com/23347-international-business-machines-corp-bright-future-in-cloud-computing/

DoD Issues Three Cloud Computing and Security Documents for Public Comment

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Article source: http://www.natlawreview.com/article/dod-issues-three-cloud-computing-and-security-documents-public-comment

5 Cloud Computing Funding Stories You Might Have Missed, July 31

Each week Talkin’ Cloud compiles a list of cloud computing financing stories for readers who might have missed the news earlier in the week. This week’s column features funding news from Twilio, Kareo, Radius, etouches and MacroFab.

These stories have been gathered from Talkin’ Cloud’s article database and other media sources. If we missed something, feel free to leave a comment below. We might just add it into the mix.

Here’s this week’s list of 5 Cloud Computing Funding Stories You Might Have Missed, July 31.

Twilio Secures $130 Million in Series E Funding. Twilio has raised $130 million in Series E funding led by Fidelity Investments and T. Rowe Price. New investors Altimeter Capital Management and Arrowpoint Partners and strategic investors Amazon (AMZN) and Salesforce Ventures also participated in the funding round. Twilio said it will use the Series E funding to accelerate its product roadmap and expand globally.

Blackberry Looks to the Channel for Reinvention

AtScale Partners with Microsoft on Big Data

Trend Micro Brings Deep Security Solution to Azure Marketplace

Kareo Secures Over $55 million in Investment to Extend Market Leadership. Kareo has closed a $55.4 million funding round. The investment was led by Montreux Equity Partners, with participation from Silver Lake Partners and all of Kareo’s existing investors. Kareo, which offers cloud-based services for independent medical practices, said the most recent funding round will help finance the company’s product line.

Radius Closes $50MM Investment, Led By Founders Fund, to Meet Surging Demand for Predictive Platform. Predictive marketing software company Radius has received $50 million in a funding round led by Founders Fund. The funding round also included participation from Formation 8, Glynn Capital Management, AME Cloud Ventures, Salesforce Ventures, BlueRun Ventures and Yuan Capital. Radius pointed out that it will use the funding to enhance its product suite.

etouches Event Management Software Receives $14M in Series C Funding. Cloud-based event management software provider etouches has received $14 million in Series C funding. The investment came from current investors and new strategic investor Argentum Group. etouches said the funding will help it further develop its cloud-based tools.

MacroFab Announces $2 Million in Seed Funding. MacroFab, which provides a cloud-based electronics manufacturing platform, has secured $2 million in seed funding. Techstars led the funding round. MacroFab noted that it will use the seed funding to bolster its platform’s capabilities.

What are your thoughts on this week’s top cloud computing funding news? Share your thoughts about this story in the Comments section below, via Twitter @dkobialka or email me at dan.kobialka@penton.com.

Article source: http://talkincloud.com/cloud-computing-funding-and-finance/5-cloud-computing-funding-stories-you-might-have-missed-july-31

Alibaba eyes up $1bn cloud computing push

(c)iStock.com/vivalapenler

E-commerce giant Alibaba has announced an additional $1 billion (£641,000) investment in Aliyun to expand the international presence of its cloud computing arm.

The money will also be used to develop new cloud and big data solutions for its customers, as well as support an “alliance-based global cloud computing ecosystem.”

Aliyun currently provides public cloud services in five data centres across China and Hong Kong, while earlier this year their first overseas data centre, in Silicon Valley, was launched. Aliyun expects part of the investment to contribute towards more data centre expansion, moving towards the Middle East, Singapore, Japan, and Europe.

“Aliyun has become a world-class cloud computing service platform that is the market leader in China, bearing the fruits of our investment over the past six years,” said Alibaba CEO Daniel Zhang in a statement. “As the physical and digital are becoming increasingly integrated, Aliyun will serve as an essential engine in this new economy.”

The Chinese cloud computing market is expected to ignite. A recent article from Bain Company argues that, by 2020, China’s cloud computing is set to break the $20bn barrier, compared to just $1.5bn two years ago. Currently, cloud computing represents less than 2% of Alibaba’s overall revenues – but the company hopes for that to change soon.

This publication has assessed the Chinese cloud computing ecosystem as far back as 2013, where a report from the US-China Economic and Security Review Commission (USCESRC) argued “systematic weaknesses”, such as lack of innovation and core technology in integrated circuit industries, was holding China back. In December, it was revealed cloud computing providers in China were to be assessed “to ensure that the government has total control of the entire ecosystem.”

Aliyun has competition in the public cloud arena in the form of Huawei. According to reports, Huawei is planning a launch event at the end of July 2015 to officially release its own cloud services.

Related Stories
  • » HP tops IDC cloud infrastructure market rankings, ahead of Dell and Cisco
  • » IBM unleashes NVIDIA GPU on SoftLayer cloud for faster processing power
  • » AWS, Microsoft, IBM and Google “leave rest behind” in cloud infrastructure market
  • » Microsoft Azure prices rise for European and Australian customers
  • » No shortage of options in Gartner’s cloud managed hosting Magic Quadrant

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Article source: http://www.cloudcomputing-news.net/news/2015/jul/31/alibaba-eyes-1bn-cloud-computing-push/

Forget Amazon, Invest in Cloud Computing Stocks with This ETF

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Article source: http://www.zacks.com/stock/news/184476/forget-amazon-invest-in-cloud-computing-stocks-with-this-etf

Considering cloud computing for clinical trials: an author Q+A

notebook

Can you explain what cloud computing is and how this can be used in clinical trials?

We use the NIST definition of cloud computing with its emphasis on a user managed configuration of services, rapid scalability and elasticity, and a metered cost model. Cloud computing, as exemplified by Amazon’s EC2 or Microsoft’s Azure services, is an extension of the traditional model of outsourced, contracted information technology (IT) provision and one which, ostensibly, holds a promise of greater user control, more immediate management and lower costs.

But, because clinical trial data includes sensitive data about individuals, and its management must be compliant with both good clinical practice and national and international requirements, the use of cloud computing facilities for clinical trial data is not at all straightforward.

Why was there a need for a workshop focusing on cloud computing?

In recent years non-commercial trials units have increasingly used external IT facilities to host some or all of their clinical data management systems (CDMS), rather than on premise facilities within the unit or its parent institution, usually a university.

These external facilities are normally provided by the CDMS vendor, and physically located at the vendor’s premises or within some external but traditionally managed IT provision. This may give only indirect control over IT services but it still provides a relatively stable and well defined IT regime.

Increasingly however, CDMS vendors are using, or planning to use, cloud computing platforms to host this data. In addition, some universities are exploring the idea of ‘hybrid clouds’ to cope with excess demand and/or backup and archiving, and in a few instances trials units themselves are looking at cloud computing as an efficient means of establishing and maintaining direct control over their IT services.

Some trials units may therefore find their data ‘in the cloud’ when this was not their intention, and may not always be clear exactly where their data, or copies of it, is located. Other units may be exploring using cloud computing facilities when the potential regulatory implications are still poorly defined.

Considering the risks identified, what do you think the potential benefits of cloud computing are for clinical trials?

Despite the potential economic benefits of using cloud based computing facilities there are several major risks that need to be understood and managed. These include:

  • The possible lack of control over data location, data lifetime and data access
  • Continued uncertainties over the legal jurisdictions that govern cloud based data
  • Industry volatility – which may result in some cloud providers disappearing
  • The lack of both clear quality standards about cloud computing
  • Any clear statements on this topic from regulatory authorities.

For me cloud computing may provide high potential economic benefits together with more flexibility and scalability, provided national and international requirements for clinical trials can be fulfilled.


Christian Ohmann
The KKS Düsseldorf

One way of reducing some of these risks is to encrypt the data at source, but the complexities and costs of managing encryption, especially in the long term, should not be under-estimated. At the moment therefore, any use of cloud computing for clinical trial data should be approached with great caution.

Christian Ohmann, also a co-author of the work said: “For me cloud computing may provide high potential economic benefits together with more flexibility and scalability, provided national and international requirements for clinical trials can be fulfilled.

It is the aim of the European Clinical Research Infrastructure Network (ECRIN) to bring this issue forward, involving all stakeholders (such as regulatory authorities, cloud provider, trial units and patient organisations).”

How do you think the use of cloud computing will shape research in the future?

If systems can be developed that promote confidence in cloud based services for trial data, we could see a much more distributed model of data processing emerge, with further potential benefits in costs and flexibility.


Steve Canham

IT provision is essentially a service for clinical research and changes in the nature of that provision should not have any great impact on the scale or direction of the research itself.

If (and only if) the risks of cloud computing listed above can be eliminated or reduced, and if the position of regulators on this type of IT provision can be clarified, one would expect to see a rise in the use of cloud based facilities. And stemming from that, a more efficient use of IT resources in clinical research generally.

In the longer term, if systems can be developed that promote confidence in cloud based services for trial data, we could see a much more distributed model of data processing emerge, with further potential benefits in costs and flexibility.

What are the next steps from the workshop?

The workshop ECRIN held in late 2014 was always seen as an initial step – more workshops are therefore being planned and we welcome participation from all interested parties – especially regulatory authorities and cloud service suppliers themselves.

ECRIN is also currently revising its own standards for IT and data management in clinical trials to deal with the potential use of cloud facilities. The goal is to clarify the risks, benefits, and requirements related to cloud computing in clinical trials, so that trials units can make informed decisions about cloud computing with much greater confidence.

Article source: http://blogs.biomedcentral.com/on-medicine/2015/07/29/considering-cloud-computing-clinical-trials-author-qa/

Spotlight: Still time to respond to our cloud computing survey!

FierceGovernmentIT‘s cloud computing survey is still open and we need your help. This research will inform an in-depth report on cloud computing initiatives in the federal government. We hope to gain a better understanding of the federal government’s knowledge of cloud computing technologies, as well as potential barriers to wider adoption. 

Under no circumstances will your individual answers be divulged – they will be reported in aggregate with those of other people who have responded to the survey and used for research purposes only.

If you take this brief survey, you will receive the final report of the research results when available. To complete the survey, simply follow this link or paste it in your browser: http://survey.confirmit.com/wix/p3075060952.aspx.

Article source: http://www.fiercegovernmentit.com/story/spotlight-still-time-respond-our-cloud-computing-survey/2015-07-30

How Venyu evolved into one of Baton Rouge’s leading cloud computing providers

Over its 25 years in business, Venyu has witnessed the birth of revolutionary digital technology while also driving the industry forward with its own innovation. From its 1989 origins as Network Technology Group, the company has pioneered advancements in data solutions, evolving to meet the increasing demand for cloud backup and cloud hosting services. A provider of cloud, data center and data protection services, Venyu serves as the physical infrastructure or “venue” from which people run their business. Today, Venyu’s broad capabilities allow clients to source, implement and manage complete information technology ecosystems that include expanded backup services for disaster recovery, business continuity, colocation and managed hosting. The image below features a timeline of Venyu’s emergence as one of the area’s leading cloud computing providers.

Gabrielle Braud • Photos by Don Kadair

Article source: https://www.businessreport.com/business/venyu-evolved-one-baton-rouges-leading-cloud-computing-providers

Alibaba Plows $1B Into Aliyun, Its Cloud Computing Unit


Alibaba Group announced today that it will invest a further $1 billion into Aliyun, its cloud computing unit. The capital will be used to expand Aliyun, which currently has data centers in China, Hong Kong, and Silicon Valley, into other international markets.

The company plans to target the Middle East, where it recently formed a joint venture with Dubai-based holding company Meraas, Singapore, Japan and Europe.

Aliyun, which spun off from Alibaba in 2012, also disclosed that it formed a new strategic partnership with Yonyou Software, which claims to be the largest software vendor in China, as well as the largest independent enterprise software vendor in the Asia-Pacific region. Working with Yonyou can help Aliyun score more enterprise customers in Asia who need cloud computing, big data, digital marketing, and e-commerce solutions.

Another strategy of global expansion is Aliyun’s Marketplace Alliance Program, which is designed to reach new clients in North America, Asia, Europe, and the Middle East through partnerships with other tech companies. These currently include Intel, Singtel, Meraas, Equinix, PCCW, LINKBYNET, and Towngas.

Aliyun competes directly with Amazon Web Services, which is also intent on global growth. Its backing from Alibaba, however, means that Aliyun has the ability to experiment with technology like low-power server processors, which might help it save a lot of money on electricity bills as it deploys new infrastructure and gives it an edge over AWS.

Aliyun is a reminder that Alibaba’s scope goes far beyond being China’s largest e-commerce company. In addition to providing services for other companies, Aliyun powers projects like what it calls the first “cloud hospital” in China. If these initiatives succeed, it means Alibaba and its units may eventually hold a sizeable stake in almost every aspect of daily life for Chinese consumers, from grocery delivery to healthcare.

Of course, not all of Alibaba’s gambits have worked out. Aliyun’s first product, a mobile operating system meant to compete with Android, has not gained significant traction despite continued investments like a recently purchased minority stake in smartphone maker Meizu.

In a statement, Alibaba Group CEO Daniel Zhang said, “Aliyun has become a world-class computing service platform that is the market leader in China, bearing the fruits of our investment over the past six years. As the physical and digital are becoming increasingly integrated, Aliyun will serve as an essential engine in this new economy. This $1 billion investment is just the beginning; our hope is for Aliyun to continually empower customers and partners with new capabilities, and help companies upgrade their basic infrastructure.”

Featured Image: Kamenetskiy Konstantin/Shutterstock

Article source: http://techcrunch.com/2015/07/29/alibillion/

Microsoft Deputy GC: Cloud Computing Is On Trial at the Second Circuit

When federal investigators served Microsoft officials with a warrant in late 2013, requesting the contents of a customer’s cloud-based email account in connection with a narcotics investigation, Microsoft said “yes, and no.”

The company agreed that investigators had the right to access emails stored in the U.S., but protested that some of the emails were being kept in the company’s data center in Dublin, Ireland. The government’s authority, Microsoft said, didn’t reach across the pond.

When a federal district court in New York approved the search over Microsoft’s protest, and demanded the tech giant grant access to its Dublin data center, Microsoft appealed to the Second Circuit.

Microsoft’s case has since drawn a diverse host of supporters, including many of the world’s largest technology companies, who worry that the outcome of the case could jeopardize their international cloud computing businesses.

David Howard, deputy general counsel at Microsoft and head of the company’s litigation group, said others have rallied to the cause because the stakes are so high.

If global tech companies can’t protect the email accounts of local users in other countries, Howard argued, users will go with local providers, who won’t be subject to the demands of foreign investigators, instead.

“The potential end result of the government’s approach in this case, especially if it’s followed by other governments elsewhere, is a balkanized cloud, in which different countries have different local clouds that don’t exist at scale,” Howard said.

In a recent interview with Big Law Business, Howard, who’s been at Microsoft for five years, spoke to the importance of the email privacy case, and also provided broader insight into what it’s like to manage the company’s legal matters: what makes a law firm attractive, how he keeps litigation costs down, and how Microsoft monetizes workplace diversity.

In the email privacy case, oral argument in Microsoft’s appeal is scheduled for September 9. Lawyers from Orrick, Herrington Sutcliffe, Covington Burling, and Petrillo Klein Boxer worked on the brief.

Interview Excerpts:

The problem is people won’t use technology they can’t trust. If people outside the United States can’t trust the cloud, they’re not going to use it and that would be a terrible shame.

Sure, there are business interests for Microsoft at stake, but there are also business interests for pretty much every company out there. If they can’t take advantage of a cloud that’s at scale, then they’re not going to be able to take full advantage of the cloud.

The best way we can really get a true and meaningful comparison of how expensive a firm is going to be in a particular matter is to have multiple firms compete for the matter, and do so on a basis other than just hourly rates.

I think [what gets my attention] is lawyers who are difference makers. If for instance a firm has a world class trial lawyer, that’s a firm that we’re going to think about using.

Below is an edited transcript of the interview.

Big Law Business: What is the Second Circuit case really about? What’s at stake, from a broader perspective?

Howard: The strict legal issue is whether the Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986 permits the U.S. Government to serve a search warrant on Microsoft in Redmond, Washington, to obtain the contents of personal emails of a Hotmail subscriber whose emails are kept in a data center in Dublin, Ireland.

You might think that’s a fairly technical legal question, and I guess in some ways it is, but it raises many broader issues, as reflected, I think, by the broad array of support for our filing in the Second Circuit.

I believe we had 23 different media and technology companies, 27 different trade associations and other companies, and 35 computer scientists, plus the government of Ireland, who all weighed in on the side of Microsoft.

Some of the supporters were really varied and strange bedfellows — everyone from Fox News to the ACLU. I think the reason is that the case raises a lot of important issues.

One issue relates to the future of the cloud computing and whether or not companies — and this doesn’t just apply to technology companies — will be able to reap the full potential of cloud computing and the amazing benefits it brings, not only to big companies but to the small and medium-sized companies as well.

The problem is people won’t use technology they can’t trust. If people outside the United States can’t trust the cloud, they’re not going to use it and that would be a terrible shame.

The other aspect that’s so important is that — as we recognize, and as the Supreme Court has recognized — every aspect of our lives exists not only in a physical world but in a digital world. All you have to do is look at some of the intrusions that have taken place in the last few months, and one realizes that people won’t feel safe unless they’re safe online.

When the Supreme Court decided the Riley case last term, one of the things that was recognized was that people have the whole history of their lives on their cell phones — everything from their photographs to their calendar to their diary to their most personal communications.

David Howard 2015

David Howard (Courtesy of Microsoft)

Those types of information are stored not only in the phone itself but in the cloud, and sometimes people don’t even understand the difference. What concerns us about this case is the real risk that the Internet becomes, and for want of a better expression, a free for all, or the wild west.

If the United States believes it can intrude beyond its borders and obtain documents from Dublin, Ireland, then there’s nothing to stop somebody in a country other than the United States from serving their equivalent of a search warrant on Microsoft, Google, or Yahoo, and obtaining the documents of U.S. citizens that happen to be stored in the United States.

Obviously, we think that would be a very bad type of precedent. We think it’s absolutely essential that somebody be in a position to make the decision that there has to be better cooperation among governments and a better balance between the interests of security and privacy.

Big Law Business: How important is the distinction of whether the user lived in Ireland or elsewhere?

Howard: Well, in terms of the law as it currently exists, it’s unimportant. In terms of the law as it might exist in the future, and the choices that Congress might make as to how to balance security and privacy given the world in which we now live, it could be an important factor.

There’s nothing in the record right now that specifically says whose email account this is. The reason why there is an expert who has said it’s unlikely these emails belong to people in the United States is that there is something called latency.

Latency is the reason why Microsoft has data centers for consumer email in other parts of the world. It’s so that people can get access to their information as quickly as possible. If somebody registers for Outlook.com, and they’re located in Europe, or they say they’re located in Europe, then they are most likely to have those documents stored in a data center in Europe.

Now, are there ways that one could get around that sort of a thing? If somebody was located in the United States, could they figure out a way to get their information stored outside the United States? Well, that’s possibly the case, sure, but there are lots of ways criminals have always found to evade law enforcement.

One thing we know from the Supreme Court’s decision in Riley is that the Court recognizes that privacy sometimes comes at a cost. In this case, when you actually interpret the statute and the words in the statute, and apply the presumption against extraterritoriality, there is nothing in the statute that would permit the type of action that the government took here, regardless of the actual residence of the individual.

Our main point here, in this case, is that U.S. prosecutors are not the best people to make the decision about how to balance security and privacy and apply the statute given the world of technology in which we now live. U.S. courts are not best placed to make that determination. The people who are best suited to make the choices are in Congress.

Big Law Business: What’s the business threat to Microsoft and all these other companies that jumped on board? If I’m a European consumer, am I more than likely to hire a provider headquartered in Europe, for example, that the U.S. Government can’t get to so easily?

Howard: Sure, there are business interests for Microsoft at stake, but there are also business interests for pretty much every company out there. If they can’t take advantage of a cloud that’s at scale, then they’re not going to be able to take full advantage of the cloud.

The potential end result of the government’s approach in this case, especially if it’s followed by other governments elsewhere, is a balkanized cloud, in which different countries have different local clouds that don’t exist at scale.

Big Law Business: Did Microsoft have to do some work getting all these different companies on board? Or was this just a no-brainer for everyone?

Howard: Well I would say that Microsoft alerted people to the issue, but you’d be amazed at the response we got from a host of different interests.

There were media companies concerned about 1st Amendment issues, technology companies in situations similar to Microsoft, civil liberties organizations worried about personal freedoms, and business organizations concerned about the future of the cloud. It was not a heavy lift. Let’s put it that way.

Big Law Business: What is Microsoft’s litigation group doing to keep legal costs down?

Howard: For one, we’re successful in our cases a lot. We have a really good track record of winning cases early. When you win cases early you don’t have to spend money on legal fees.

Secondly, we do rely, to a large extent, on a combination of alternative fees and also competitive bidding in the litigation group, to try and have apples to apples comparisons that allow us to choose the best firm for a particular matter.

That may not always be the lowest priced firm, but in our view it’s the best way we can align our interests with those of the firms we use. The best way we can really get a true and meaningful comparison of how expensive a firm is going to be in a particular matter is to have multiple firms compete for the matter, and do so on a basis other than just hourly rates.

Big Law Business: What catches your eye, as far as law firm marketing? How does a firm get your attention?

Howard: I think the answer is lawyers who are difference makers. If for instance a firm has a world class trial lawyer, that’s a firm that we’re going to think about using. We’re lucky enough to have a bunch of those people in our our [Premier Provider Program] firms, but you can never have too many.

Big Law Business: How is Microsoft pushing firms to improve on diversity?

Howard: I think we are one of the first companies, if not the first company, to have and embrace a law firm diversity program, in which we actually give bonuses to firms based on their ability to hit certain goals on an annual basis.

That’s something we’ve been doing for quite a few years, and it’s an important part of our program, in part, because it gives firms a financial incentive to promote diversity and inclusion.

Also, if an insufficient number of firms meet the matrix on an annual basis, part of the bonus for people like me actually gets held back. We like to think that we put our money where our mouth is. We’re always thinking about ways to improve the program, and we’re currently working on its next iteration right now.

Article source: https://bol.bna.com/microsoft-deputy-gc-cloud-computing-is-on-trial-at-the-second-circuit/